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Current Articles & Research Resources, July 25

In this weekly post, we feature helpful research tools and recent articles of interest to the legislative community.

  • Review the ballot language in the upcoming constitutional amendment election in November. (Texas Secretary of State, accessed July 24, 2019)
  • Explore how demand response works to meet energy needs of consumers. (National Conference of State Legislatures, July 2019)
  • Consider how third-party debt collections affect consumers' credit. (Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, July 2019)
  • Examine the circumstances under which a debtor may discharge a student loan under federal bankruptcy laws. (Congressional Research Service, July 18, 2019)

Members of the Texas legislative community may request the articles below here or by calling 512-463-1252.

  • "Measles as metaphor." By Peter Beinart. Atlantic Monthly, August 2019, pp. 13-16.
    Suggests declining vaccination rates reflect a population that lacks awareness of lessons of the past, has overconfidence in its own "amateur knowledge," and shows little trust in government and other institutions. Offers solutions to reverse the trend.
  • "Suburb weighs how to slow apartment construction." By Daniel Salazar. Austin Business Journal, July 19, 2019, p. 8.
    Reports that Leander City Council's proposal to restrict the use of certain building materials on new multifamily projects could violate HB2439, 86th Legislature, relating to overly restrictive building regulations.
  • "How Texas flushed out plumbers." By David Wethe. Bloomberg Businessweek, July 15, 2019, pp. 37-39.
    Discusses Governor Greg Abbott's emergency executive order relating to continuing the Texas State Board of Plumbing Examiners. Explains how the agency's Sunset legislation, SB621, failed to pass the 86th Legislature.
  • "Trying to change Congress, starting with the lowest rung: Interns." By Jessica Mendoza. Christian Science Monitor, July 22, 2019, pp. 6-7.
    Highlights the College to Congress program, a nonprofit that helps low-income students obtain internships in Congress. Explains the program seeks bipartisan participation.
  • "Way ahead of you, Congress." By Jacob Fischler. CQ Weekly, July 15, 2019, pp. 31-33.
    Looks at what state legislatures are doing to address climate change. Focuses on states led by Democrats who campaigned on climate policy in the 2018 elections.
  • "The world economy: A strangely elastic expansion." Economist, July 13th-19th, 2019, pp. 21-23.
    Comments on America's economic expansion, which at the end of July will have matched the record for the longest unbroken period of rising GDP set in the 1990s. Considers factors that could trigger a recession.
  • "The U.S. Supreme Court and schools: 2018-19." By Mark Walsh. Education Week, July 17, 2019, pp. 19-20.
    Summarizes recent United States Supreme Court rulings relevant to K-12 education, including the census citizenship question, age discrimination, religion in a public square, and federal administrative power. Identifies several high profile education-related cases that will be heard during the Court's 2020 term.
  • "State efforts to lower health care prices paid by private insurers." By Aditi P. Sen, Amber Willink, and Gerard F. Anderson. JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), July 16, 2019, pp. 201-202.
    Outlines three approaches states are taking to lower health care prices paid by private insurers: targeted price regulation, promoting competition, and investing in alternative payment models.
  • "Energy efficiency in cannabis cultivation: A growing concern." By John Hargrove. Public Utilities Fortnightly, July 2019, pp. 147, 149.
    Features a brief discussion about the energy-related challenges of harvesting cannabis.
  • "Voting by phone is easy. But is it secure?" By Matt Vasilogambros. Stateline (Pew Charitable Trusts), July 18, 2019, pp. 1-6.
    Discusses the conflict between accessibility and security in phone-based voting systems.
  • "Forgotten in the fields." By Dana Ullman. Texas Observer, July/August 2019, pp. 20-25.
    Describes forced agricultural labor of farmworkers in Texas, who increasingly come to the state on H-2A guest worker visas, and the difficulty in prosecuting labor trafficking cases. Cites a 2016 study by The University of Texas at Austin, which estimated there are 234,000 labor trafficking victims in Texas with $600 million in annual wages stolen.

The Legislative Reference Library compiles this weekly annotated list of Current Articles of interest to the legislative community. Professional librarians review and select articles from more than 300 periodicals, including public policy journals, specialized industry periodicals, news magazines, and state agency publications. Members of the Texas legislative community may request articles using our online form.

Current Articles & Research Resources, July 18

In this weekly post, we feature helpful research tools and recent articles of interest to the legislative community.

  • Review remote sales tax collection by state. (National Conference of State Legislatures, July 1, 2019)
  • See how probation and parole affect prison populations. (Council of State Governments, ©2019)
  • Consider how a change in the federal minimum wage would affect employment. (Congressional Budget Office, July 8, 2019)
  • Read about possible reforms to federal asylum laws. (Texas Public Policy Foundation, July 10, 2019)

Members of the Texas legislative community may request the articles below here or by calling 512-463-1252.

  • "Education isn't enough." By Nick Hanauer. Atlantic Monthly, July 2019, pp. 19-22.
    Argues educational inequality is a symptom of the real problem, which is economic inequality. Suggests the most important predictor of a child's educational success is household income and a secure middle-class life.
  • "More states take a gamble on sports betting. Will it pay off?" By Jacob Turcotte. Christian Science Monitor, June 24, 2019, p. 15.
    Identifies the status of sports gambling in the various states and defines the pros and cons of sports gambling expansion.
  • "Americans United endorses bill to end discrimination in foster care programs." Church & State, July/August 2019, pp. 16-17.
    Highlights the Every Child Deserves a Family Act, proposed federal legislation that seeks to end discrimination in foster care, adoption, and child welfare.
  • "Police officers and social media: Slur and protect." Economist, July 6th-12th, 2019, pp. 22, 24.
    Considers how law enforcement agencies should discipline police and border patrol officers who make racist and misogynistic posts on their social media accounts. Questions whether the posts are protected speech.
  • "State legislators tackle broad basket of issues on parents' checklist." By Marva Hinton. Education Week, June 19, 2019, pp. 15, 17.
    Looks at recent state legislation on school safety, charter schools, and student data privacy. Mentions HB1387, 86th Legislature, that removes caps on the number of school marshals per school campus.
  • "Equity crowdfunding in Texas: A funding tool for small business." By Jackie Benton. Fiscal Notes, June/July 2019, pp. 7-10.
    Examines state equity crowdfunding rules and requirements in Texas and the benefits for small businesses. Notes the Texas crowdfunding program has raised $2.5 million in capital for small businesses since 2015.
  • "Abbott signs bill to combat patient confusion." By Elizabeth Byrne. Fort Worth Business Press, June 24-30, 2019, pp. 18-19.
    Discusses HB2041, 86th Legislature, that requires freestanding emergency rooms to disclose the in-network health insurance plans they accept and fees that may be charged. Quotes bill author Representative Tom Oliverson.
  • "Lancaster library to be named for educator Reby Cary." By Rick Mauch. Fort Worth Business Press, July 1-7, 2019, p. 10.
    Reports that Fort Worth's first children- and teen-focused public library will be named the Reby Cary Youth Library, honoring the late educator and former state representative.
  • "The 86th Texas Legislature gavels out: Texas hospitals achieve notable policy wins to protect access to care." By Aisha Ainsworth. Internet Resource, May/June 2019, pp. 1-2.
    Recaps the 86th Texas Legislature, emphasizing bills that affect Texas hospitals.
  • "Protecting the accuracy of the 2020 census." By Constance F. Citro. Issues in Science and Technology, Summer 2019, pp. 37-43.
    Provides a brief history of early population census taking in the United States and lists key issues with the modern census from 1970 through 2010. Discusses the challenges to conducting an accurate census in 2020, including an undercount due to government mistrust, computing systems vulnerabilities, funding shortfalls, and data protection.
  • "Texas law and the restatement of the law of liability insurance: An initial comparison of blackletter principles." By Cyrus W. Haralson and Christina A. Culver. Journal of Texas Insurance Law, Spring 2019, pp. 3-29 (Note Length).
    Compares and contrasts Texas law on liability insurance with the recent final draft of the American Law Institute's Restatement of the Law of Liability Insurance.
  • "Criminal justice reform is having a (long overdue) moment." By C.J. Ciaramella. Reason, August/September 2019, pp. 26-29.
    Reviews a variety of federal, state, and local bipartisan efforts to reform the criminal justice system.
  • "Recalibrating local politics to increase the supply of housing; Comment." By Chris Elmendorf and William A. Fischel. Regulation (CATO Institute), Summer 2019, pp. 38-45.
    Argues state planning mandates and development-rights auctions can bolster pro-housing factions in local governments.
  • "Businesses scramble to prep for city's sick leave law." By Tony Quesada. San Antonio Business Journal, July 5, 2019, p. 3.
    Comments on the San Antonio city ordinance that will require employers to allow employees to accrue sick leave beginning August 1, 2019.
  • "Texas facing historically tight labor markets, constraining growth." By Christopher Slijk. Southwest Economy (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas), Second Quarter 2018, pp. 3-6.
    Analyzes recent trends in labor force migration and unemployment that have led to a tight labor market, constraining economic growth and limiting business expansion.
  • "New attack on race-based admissions at UT Austin seeks to succeed where 'Fisher' failed." By Angela Morris. Texas Lawyer, July/August 2019, p. 4.
    Discusses the new legal strategy at play in a new lawsuit challenging the University of Texas at Austin's race-based admission policies.

The Legislative Reference Library compiles this weekly annotated list of Current Articles of interest to the legislative community. Professional librarians review and select articles from more than 300 periodicals, including public policy journals, specialized industry periodicals, news magazines, and state agency publications. Members of the Texas legislative community may request articles using our online form.

Bill Effective Dates, 86th Legislature

The Library has created its bill effective dates page for the 86th Legislature. Legislators passed 474 bills that are now in effect. (473 bills and provisions within 15 bills took effect immediately; one bill took effect on June 4.)


The remainder of the 1,373 total bills signed by the governor or filed without the governor's signature will take effect over the next five years, between August 26, 2019, and January 1, 2024. Peruse our page to find detailed information about what takes effect when.


To keep up with new laws throughout the year, check the Library's list of bill effective dates.

Current Articles & Research Resources, July 11

In this weekly post, we feature helpful research tools and recent articles of interest to the legislative community.

  • Follow updates and implementation of HB3, 86th Legislature. (Texas Education Agency, updated July 3, 2019)
  • Consider whether facial recognition technology needs federal regulation. (The Atlantic, June 28, 2019)
  • Protect your car from theft. (Texas Department of Motor Vehicles, ©2019)
  • Keep your pets safe during an emergency or disaster. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration, June 28, 2019)

Members of the Texas legislative community may request the articles below here or by calling 512-463-1252.

  • "Bad medicine." By Liz Hayes. Church & State, July/August 2019, pp. 9-11.
    Comments on the denial of care rule, proposed by the United States Department of Health & Human Services [HHS], to protect individuals and health care entities from discrimination on the basis of their exercise of conscience in HHS-funded programs.
  • "Just business: Few fireworks during session as lawmakers make deals on top priorities." Classroom Teacher (Texas Classroom Teachers Association), Spring 2019, pp. 10-17.
    Summarizes key public education issues and bills in the 86th Legislature, including school finance reform, teacher salaries and retirement, school discipline, school safety and mental health, and other bills affecting public schools.
  • "Virtually defenseless: The national security establishment is woefully unprepared for the new era of cyber-warfare." By John M. Donnelly and Gopal Ratnam. CQ Researcher, June 24, 2019, pp. 15-21.
    Examines the new "information warfare," increasing cybersecurity concerns, and military preparation for cyberattacks.
  • "We love foreign workers." By Shawn Zeller. CQ Weekly, June 17, 2019, pp. 18-23.
    Discusses why businesses lean toward hiring seasonal foreign workers over Americans. Addresses problems with labor regulations relating to recruiting and wage fraud.
  • "Texafornia dreaming; California & Texas: A tale of two states." Economist, June 22nd - June 28th, 2019, pp. 7, 3-14.
    Presents a special report on California and Texas. Claims America' future will be written in the two mega-states.
  • "Transport: Flying start." Economist, June 15th-21st, 2019, pp. 55-56.
    Reports drone deliveries are advancing in health care, which could save hospitals millions in lab and pharmacy costs.
  • "State legislators revamp funding in Texas, Nevada." By Daarel Burnette II. Education Week, June 19, 2019, p. 16.
    Summarizes school finance reforms in Texas and Nevada in this year's legislative sessions. Mentions the increase in the Texas education budget to $11.6 billion, an increase in teacher salaries, and full day pre-Kindergarten for eligible 4-year-olds.
  • "Motor fuels taxes in a changing Texas transportation scene: Should Texas rethink the way it funds roads?" By Shannon Halbrook and Jess Donald. Fiscal Notes, June/July 2019, pp. 1, 3-6.
    Describes future trends of motor fuels tax revenue in Texas, providing for the construction and maintenance of state highways, roads, and bridges since 1923. Considers the role of alternative-fuel vehicles, rising highway costs, and the tax structures in other states with variable-rate gas taxes.
  • "Texas distillers thrive, but hoped for more from state." By Marice Richter. Fort Worth Business Press, June 24-30, 2019, pp. 6, 21.
    Looks at the 86th Legislature from the perspective of craft distillers, and discusses legislation passed to allow "sampling of product" for distillers and "beer-to-go" for craft breweries.
  • "Newspaper-man." By Jay Nordlinger. National Review, June 24, 2019, pp. 18-19.
    Considers the value of small-town newspapers and their editors in a profile of Mike Brown, editor of the Rockdale Reporter serving Rockdale, Texas.
  • "Bad economic justifications for minimum wage hikes." By Ryan Bourne. Policy Brief (CATO Institute), June 20, 2019, pp. 1-8.
    Explains why the metrics used to advocate minimum wage hikes are not sensible benchmarks by which to set minimum wage rates, and could instead produce damaging labor market outcomes.
  • "The confession." By Douglas Starr. Science, June 14, 2019, pp. 1022-1026.
    Looks at how and why police interrogations can result in false confessions.
  • "When was the Republic of Texas no more? Revisiting the annexation of Texas." By Keith J. Volanto and Gene B. Preuss. Southwestern Historical Quarterly, July 2019, pp. 30-59 (Note Length).
    Examines the timeline of annexation of the Republic of Texas to the United States through a review of the contemporary congressional and legal proceedings. Argues the "annexation ceremony" on February 19, 1846, at a two-room dogtrot cabin in Austin, is a "historical myth," demonstrating that the actual transfer of sovereignty was on December 29, 1845, when the United States government formally annexed Texas.
  • "Oregon walkout reflects a growing trend. Here's why lawmakers leave." By Matt Vasilogambros. Stateline (Pew Charitable Trusts), June 27, 2019, pp. 1-5.
    Considers the history of legislative walkouts. Points out possible political fallout and financial repercussions for lawmakers who use this tactic.
  • "Mobilizing against measles." By Sean Price. Texas Medicine, July 2019, pp. 22-29.
    Explores the current measles surge, legislative action to address the problem, and advocacy against such action. Identifies a range of pro- and anti-vaccine bills that were considered in the 86th Legislature.
  • "Who cares." By Grace Gedye. Washington Monthly, July/August 2019, pp. 15-18.
    Suggests long-term care is a political issue. Explains how individual caregivers make daily sacrifices to care for their older and ailing family members.

The Legislative Reference Library compiles this weekly annotated list of Current Articles of interest to the legislative community. Professional librarians review and select articles from more than 300 periodicals, including public policy journals, specialized industry periodicals, news magazines, and state agency publications. Members of the Texas legislative community may request articles using our online form.

Interim Hearings – Weeks of July 8 and 15

Today's Committee Meetings on the LRL website is a calendar of interim committee hearings with links to agendas. Below are resources related to upcoming Interim Hearings.


July 12

Topic: Issues related to the increase in asylum-seeking migrant families at the Texas-Mexico border


July 18

House Committee on General Investigating

Topic: Committee business

The committee may enter into an executive session to consider any matter authorized to be considered in an executive session under Subchapter B, Chapter 301, Government Code, the Rules of the House of Representatives, the Housekeeping Resolution, and the committee’s rules.


Research Minute: Finding Past Bill Statistics

Interested to know how the numbers for the 86th Legislature, Regular Session, compare to past Legislatures? Our bill statistics page goes all the way back to the 16th Legislature (1879)!



End-of-Session Comparison, 86th Legislature

Interested in how the final results of the 86th Legislature's regular session compares to the past few sessions? See the charts below to compare and contrast.


To see past bill statistics and other session information, see previous blog posts on the legislative process.


Current Articles & Research Resources, June 27

In this weekly post, we feature helpful research tools and recent articles of interest to the legislative community.

  • Find out how to avoid phone calls from fake phone numbers. (Federal Trade Commission, June 25, 2019)
  • Track language usage in American case law over time, from the colonial period to today. (ABA Journal, June 20, 2019)
  • Read about Disaster City of Texas A&M University, where first responders train. (Stateline, June 25, 2019)
  • Explore an FAQ related to the upcoming November 5, 2019 uniform election. (Texas Secretary of State, accessed June 26, 2019)

Members of the Texas legislative community may request the articles below here or by calling 512-463-1252.

  • "Do states adjust Medicaid enrollment in response to capitation rates? Evidence from the Medicare Part D clawback." By Laura Quinby and Gal Wettstein. Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, June 2019, pp. 1-32.
    Examines to what extent more generous capitated federal subsidies would likely cause states to increase Medicaid enrollment. Includes state table of Modified FMAP [Federal Medical Assistance Percentage] Accounting for State and Federal Spending on Prescription Drugs for Dual-Eligibles, 2012.
  • "Rethinking mental health for cops: When 'good intentions' aren't enough." By Henry Gass. Christian Science Monitor, June 17, 2019, pp. 12-13.
    Highlights programs such as the critical incident stress management program [CISM] of the Fort Worth Police Department that assist officers who have been involved in traumatic incidents. Suggests an array of options for psychological first aid should be available to first responders.
  • "Teacher appreciation days." CQ Weekly, June 3, 2019, pp. 35-37.
    Examines other states' legislative efforts to raise teacher pay or create a minimum salary. Highlights legislation in Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.
  • "Religion and freedom: I can do no other." Economist, June 15th-21st, 2019, pp. 21-22.
    Reports on the case of Scott Warren, who is facing felony charges for conspiring to harbor and transport illegal immigrants. Examines whether the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 can protect Mr. Warren from prosecution, as he claims a spiritual motive lay behind the actions he took to reduce the number of migrants who perish in the Arizona desert.
  • "The financial benefits and burdens of performance funding in higher education." By Lori Prince Hagood. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, June 2019, pp. 189-213.
    Investigates the effects of performance funding policies on state appropriations for four-year, public universities. Establishes state funding patterns associated with performance funding and determines to what extent performance funding favors some institutions over others.
  • "Home health care providers struggle with state laws and Medicare rules as demand rises." By Susan Jaffe. Health Affairs, June 2019, pp. 981-986.
    Considers how Medicare rules and state laws restricting nurse practitioners' scope-of-practice have raised obstacles to patients' access to home health care.
  • "The rural hospital problem." By Austin B. Frakt. JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), June 18, 2019, pp. 2271-2272.
    Examines reasons for increased numbers of rural hospital closures, and considers the consequences for cost, quality, and access.
  • "Free speech, if we can keep it." By Charles C.W. Cooke. National Review, June 24, 2019, pp. 34-36.
    Contrasts strong support for free speech doctrines in the courts with a shrinking "meaningful culture of free speech" due to concerns about hate speech and intolerant speech.
  • "Injunction dysfunction." By David French. National Review, June 24, 2019, pp. 33-34.
    Examines the increasing use of nationwide injunctions by activists across the political spectrum. Argues that the proper legal mechanism for action affecting all similarly situated individuals would be a class-action lawsuit.
  • "Economic benefits of the Texas energy sector." By M. Ray Perryman. Perryman Report and Texas Letter, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 1-3, 6.
    Quantifies the stimulus the energy sector provides across the economy. Points out the varied industries required to meet the needs of the growing Texas oil and gas industry.
  • "Lessons from California on carbon risk: First climate-change bankruptcy." By Priti Patel, et al. Public Utilities Fortnightly, June 1, 2019, pp. 80-83, 87.
    Examines how the takings clause of California's state constitution is applied to hold public utilities liable for any damages caused by their systems.
  • "What constitutes 'discrimination' in college admissions?" By Dennis L. Weisman. Regulation (CATO Institute), Summer 2019, pp. 24-27.
    Contends that defining discrimination exclusively in terms of a departure from merit-based admissions may be too narrow. Points out this definition fails to account for the value conferred on the university by other types of admissions, such as those based on legacy and athletic preferences.
  • "Teens of 'anti-vaxxers' can get their own vaccines, some states say." By Michael Ollove. Stateline (Pew Charitable Trusts), June 24, 2019, pp. 1-5.
    Examines the rights of adolescents to make certain health care decisions. Points out recent state legislative efforts to narrow school vaccination exemptions and to give minors the right to get vaccinated without their parents' permission.
  • "The vaccine battlegrounds." By Jefferey Kluger. Time, June 24, 2019, pp. 38-43.
    Discusses vaccine-related legislation recently addressed in state legislatures. Considers oppositional efforts against state legislation requiring vaccinations, despite a record number of measles cases in the United States.

The Legislative Reference Library compiles this weekly annotated list of Current Articles of interest to the legislative community. Professional librarians review and select articles from more than 300 periodicals, including public policy journals, specialized industry periodicals, news magazines, and state agency publications. Members of the Texas legislative community may request articles using our online form.


New & Noteworthy: June 2019

The Library is continually adding new books to its collection. Below are the five titles from our June 2019 New & Noteworthy list

Check out and delivery of New & Noteworthy titles is available to legislative staff in Capitol and District offices. To arrange check out and delivery of any of these items, you can submit an online request through the New & Noteworthy page on our website, contact the library at 512-463-1252, or use our PDF request form.


1. Charged: The New Movement to Transform American Prosecution and End Mass Incarceration
By Emily Bazelon
Argues that prosecutors have unchecked power that is a major contributing factor to mass incarceration in the United States. Presents the issue in a compelling manner through the experiences of two young people who were caught up in the criminal justice system. Describes how reform within district attorneys' offices and changes to state laws could address the overuse of incarceration.
Random House, 2019. 409 pages.
345.73 B347C 2019



2. Economics of Higher Education in the United States
By Thomas Adam and A. Burcu Bayram, editors
Analyzes the changing economic environment of higher education and reviews the historical roots of the student debt crisis. Claims today's focus on college tuition and student loans derived from a fundamental shift in the historically-defined purpose for a college education – what was once perceived as a public good, normally free to the user, developed into an environment in which higher education became a privilege, determined by financial wealth and market forces. Suggests prohibitive higher education costs could hamper states' efforts to create the skilled workforce key to states' economic growth and necessary to meet employers' needs.
Texas A&M University Press, 2019. 209 pages.
378.3 AD14E 2019



3. The Meanest Man in Congress: Jack Brooks and the Making of an American Century
By Timothy McNulty and Brendan McNulty
Profiles former Congressman and Texas Representative Jack Brooks, a Democrat who served in the 50th and 51st Texas legislatures and the U.S. House of Representatives from 1953 through 1995. Describes his life, from his upbringing in Beaumont and enlistment in World War II to his political career under ten U.S. presidents. Highlights Brooks' influence as a member of the Texas congressional delegation, his leadership roles on congressional committees and subcommittees, his insistence on government oversight, and his successes in passing bipartisan legislation. Describes his candid manner and demanding methods which earned him the (mostly complimentary) reputation of being the "Meanest Man in Congress." Details his roles in advancing LBJ's Great Society, the impeachment of Nixon, and investigating the Iran-Contra Affair.
NewSouth Books, 2019. 509 pages.
328.73092 M235M 2019



4. The River and the Wall
By Ben Masters
Chronicles the ambitious trip of three Texans along the U.S.-Mexico border from El Paso to the Gulf of Mexico. Illustrates border issues through photography, firsthand experiences, environmental features of the Big Bend and the Rio Grande, and interviews with landowners, immigrants, and U.S. Representatives Will Hurd and Beto O'Rourke.
Texas A&M University Press, 2019. 188 pages.
917.64 M393R 2019



5. Summary of Conference Committee Report for House Bill 1: Appropriations for the 2020-21 Biennium
By Legislative Budget Board
Presents an overview of the conference committee report for HB 1, 86th Legislature. Details the total appropriations for the 2020–21 biennium by each method of finance for each article in the bill. Provides a comparison point between the different versions of the bill as it progressed through budget deliberations, enabling readers to identify the differences between chamber bills, or a specific chamber’s changes.
Legislative Budget Board, 2019. 77 pages.
Online at:
L1300.8 B859 202021SC

Locating Bill Effective Dates on TLO

The library reviews the text of all bills that become law to determine their effective dates and enters the information into Texas Legislature Online (TLO). To find the effective date of a bill, look up the bill in TLO and check the "Last action" field in the history window. In some cases, different sections of a bill may have different effective dates, in which case additional remarks will be given to provide the information.


For House and Senate bills from the 86th Regular Session (2019), the two largest groupings are:

  • Effective immediately: 473
  • Effective on 9/1/19: 820

The library compiles a more detailed list of bills and their effective dates following each regular and called session. The list is made available on the library's website once it is complete.

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